#180 Weekend Quiz 4U, 19 August 1942 DIEPPE RAID - Page 4
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Thread: #180 Weekend Quiz 4U, 19 August 1942 DIEPPE RAID

  1. #136
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 61

    01.01. Molotov

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    After Churchill and Roosevelt Molotov is the third key person for the Dieppe Raid, more than any other Russian leader.

    01.01.01. A Plane Arrives
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Name:	01.01. 2 RAF Tealing, waiting for Molotov.jpg
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    On 20 May 1942 a delegation assembled on the airfield RAF Tealing near Dundee in Scotland.

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Name:	01.01. 3 a Major-General Sir Archibald Edward Nye1.jpg
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    Members of this delegation were Major-General Sir Archibald Edward Nye (Vice Chief of the Imperial General Staff),

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Name:	01.01. 3 b Air Vice-Marshal John Oliver Andrews.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 3 b Air Vice-Marshal John Oliver Andrews 1915.jpg
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    Air Vice-Marshal John Oliver Andrews (C/O 13th Group),

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Name:	01.01. 3 c Station Commander RAF Tealing.jpg
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    the Station Commander RAF Tealing,

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Name:	01.01. 3 d Mr. Geoffrey Masterman Wilson.jpg
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    Geoffrey Masterman Wilson (Russian department of the Foreign Office),

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Name:	01.01. 3 f Vladimir Nikolajevich Pawlov 4.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 3 f Vladimir Nikolajevich Pawlov 3.jpg
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    Vladimir Nikolajevich Pavlov (Владимир Николаевич Павлов, Stalins personal translator; a little trustworthy "Soviet Policy Legend" states that Pavlov was an illegitimate son of Stalin and a Volga German mother)

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Name:	01.01. 3 g Pavlov and Sobolev 1.jpg
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    and Arkadi Alexandrovich Sobolev (Арка́дий Алекса́ндрович Со́болев, Under Secretary of the Soviet Foreign Office and adviser to the Soviet Embassy in the UK).
    KH
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  2. #137
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 62

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Name:	01.01. 5 TB-7 arrives 1.jpg
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    A big foreign aircraft was awaited,

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Name:	01.01. 6 Russian TB7 no. 42066 in Tealing 1a.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 6 Russian TB7 no. 42066 in Tealing 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 6 Russian TB7 no. 42066 in Tealing 2.jpg
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    the Russian four engine TB-7 (ТБ-7 = Tяжёлый бомбардировщик-7 = heavy bomber-7) with the serial no. 42066. If you look for such a plane you also have to search the designation Pe-8, as in the Soviet Union the aircraft first were named after their intended purpose,

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Name:	01.01. 7 a Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev 2.jpg
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    but on 8 September 1942 the Vice-Minister of Aviation Industry Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev (Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Я́ковлев) ordered that all planes were to be renamed aftertheabbreviationsoftheirdesigners,

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Name:	01.01. 7 b Vladimir Mikhailovich Petlyakov.jpg
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    the TB-7 to Pe-8 after Vladimir Mikhailovich Petlyakov (Влади́мир Миха́йлович Петляко́в, Пе-8).

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Name:	01.01. 6 Russian TB7 no. 42066 in Tealing 4.jpg
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    One very unusual characteristic of the plane in RAF Tealing is the presence of red stars on the wing upper surfaces, unique in 1942, probably painted to avoid the risk of misidentification by British and US interceptors.
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  3. #138
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 63

    According to the passenger list a Mr. Brown was the passenger, who was in fact the Soviet Peoples' Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Deputy Chairman of the State Committee of Defence, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skrjabin (Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Скрябин),

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Name:	01.01. 8 Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov 2.jpg
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    who is much better known under his nom de guerre Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Мо́лотов; Molotov means hammer). The plane had left its base at Kratovo (SE of Moscow) on 19 May 1942

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Name:	01.01. 10 a Major Endel Karlovich Puusepp 1.jpg
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    with Commander Major Endel Karlovich Pusep or Puusepp (Эндель Карлович Пусэп or Пуу́сэпп; he preferred to write Pusep) at the controls

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Name:	01.01. 10 b Captain Vasily Mikhailovich Obukhov 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 b Captain Vasily Mikhailovich Obukhov.jpg
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    and with Co-pilot Captain Vasily Mikhailovich Obukhov (капитан Василий Михайлович Обухов, an experienced combat pilot).
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  5. #139
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 64

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Name:	01.01. 10 c Major Aleksandr Pavlovich Shtepenko 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 c Major Aleksandr Pavlovich Shtepenko 2.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 c Puusepp left, Shtepenko 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 c Puusepp left, Shtepenko 1942.jpg
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    Navigators were Major Aleksandr Pavlovich Shtepenko (майор Александр Павлович Штепенко)

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Name:	01.01. 10 d Major Sergei Michailovich Romanov 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 d Major Sergei Michailovich Romanov 2.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 e Major Pusep, Shtepenko and Romanov .jpg
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    and Major Sergei Michailovich Romanov (майор Сергей Михайловичу Романов).

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    The other crew members were the flight-technician Captain Alexander J. Zolotarev (Александр Я. Золотарёв)

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    and his assistant Captain S.N. Dmitriev (С. Н. Дмитриев), the radio operators S.K. Mukhanov (С.К. Муханов) and B.N. Nizovtsev (Б.Н. Низовцев), the bow gunner and bombardier Ivan P. Goncharov (Иван П. Гончаров) and the gunners Dmitry M. Kozhin (Дмитри М. Кожин), Pavel Viktorovich Salnikov (Павел Викторович Сальников), G.F. Belousov (Г.Ф. Белоусов) and V.I. Smirnov (В.И. Смирнов).
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  6. #140
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 65

    01.01.02. Roosevelt

    The American President Roosevelt also had taken the initiative by asking the Russian premier Stalin on 12 April 1942, if he would be willing to send his Foreign Minister Molotov and a military adviser to Washington DC for talks about future strategy, as Stalin had not been able to join the President and British Prime Minister Churchill at their previous meetings because of the precarious position of the Soviet Union after the German invasion in June 1941, but the Soviets were keen to make personal contact with their allies in the west. Stalin agreed to the flight on April 20 and told Roosevelt that Molotov would have talks in London on the way. The President offered an American transport aircraft for the journey but Stalin insisted that a Soviet aircraft would be able to make the flight.

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Name:	01.01. 10 g 5 Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, 1st Baron Inverchapel.jpg
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    The British ambassador to Moscow, Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, 1st Baron Inverchapel, had to co-ordinate everything and informed London on April 20 that the Soviet government wished to send a four-engined aircraft direct from Moscow. At this stage he could not say who the likely passengers would be and, because this was the first flight of its kind, the Soviet Air Force wanted to know which airfield they should use. The RAF, in turn, asked for full details about communications, the route and the instruments, the Soviet aircraft would have on board. All in all it was a difficult diplomatic undertaking to prepare the flight.


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    The bomber had flown across the Baltic Sea, the North of German occupied Denmark and the North Sea to Scotland and landed at Tealing in the morning of 20 May 1942. Molotov was on the mission first to meet with

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Name:	01.01. 10 k 1 Sir Winston Spencer Churchill 1942.jpg
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    Prime Minister Sir Winston Spencer Churchill

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Name:	01.01. 10 k Molotov in the Gardens of 10 Downing Street, May 1942.jpg
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    at Downing Street No. 10 in London. Tealing airfield was probably chosen to attract as little attention as possible and, for security reasons, there was a local news blackout at the time.
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  7. #141
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 66

    01.01.03. First Flight

    In the early days of March 1942 already, Stalin had asked

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 0 General Golovanov.jpg
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    General Alexander Yevgeniyevich Golovanov (Генерал Александр Евгеньевич Голованов), commander of the 81st Long Range Bomber Division (81-й авиационной дивизии дальнего действия), to tell him the best and quickest route to get to Washington by aeroplane. Golovanov quickly considered all the various routes and concluded that the best and safest route would be adventurous, as it followed the line of the front from Moscow to Washington via Iceland and Canada.

    01.01.03.01. Iceland?

    Iceland had been Danish since the Kalmar Union or Union of Kalmaris 1397, but after an agreement with Denmark, signed on 1 December 1918, the DanishIcelandic Act of Union, Iceland was an independent state, freely associated to Denmark in a personal union with the Danish king. Denmark handled its defense interests, as Iceland had no defence forces. Foreign affairs were commonly handled in personal union with Denmark. Danish embassies around the world displayed

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    both coat of arms and flag of the Kingdom of Denmark

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 0 Iceland Coat of Arms.jpg
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    and coat of arms and flag of the Kingdom of Iceland. At the beginning of WW2 the Kingdom of Iceland declared itself a neutral country. So the proposed route for Molotov was via Iceland, a neutral state?

    Not at all! On early morning of 10 May 1940 the British had invaded Iceland, when British Royal Marines disembarked from Royal Navy ships in Icelands capital Reykjavk. The British military operation was codenamed Operation Fork.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 0 k Unternehmen Weserbung 1.jpg
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    9 April 1940 at 04:15 German forces had invaded Norway and neutral Denmark during Unternehmen Weserbung (Operation Weser-Exercise). The Danes capitulated within six hours; the Danish island of Bornholm was occupied without incident the following day,

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    which means that Operation Weser-Exercise Southern Part was completed 10 April 1940 already. In Norway the Germans arrived just a little earlier than the British and French, as according to the allied "Plan R4" 18,000 allied troops were to land in Narvik to close the railroad to Sweden. Other cities to be captured were Trondheim and Bergen. On 9 April 1940 the British government sent a message to the Icelandic government. It stated that Britain was willing to assist Iceland in maintaining independence if Iceland would allow British forces to establish presence there. Iceland was invited to join Britain in the war "as a belligerent and an ally". The Icelandic government

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 1 Iceland Prime Minister Hermann Jnasson 1.jpg
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    and Prime Minister Hermann Jnasson rejected the offer, noting the wish to remain neutral in the conflict. On the next day, 10 April, the Icelandic parliament,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 2 Iceland Christian X. in Kopenhagen 1940 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 2 Iceland King Christian X 1.jpg
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    the Alingi (Althing), declared Danish King Kristjn X (Christian X) unable to perform his constitutional duties. Royal power was provisionally transferred to the cabinet in Reykjavk and Iceland assumed the conduct of its foreign affairs.
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  8. #142
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 67

    What would happen with Iceland was demonstrated by the British two days later on 12 April 1940 already.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 6 4 Faroe Islands Occupation 3 Two young Faroese boys stand with a British sentry .jpg
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    In Operation Valentine the British occupied the Faroe Islands, an Amt (county) of Denmark, half way between Scotland and Iceland.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 6 1 HMS Hesperus Lt.Cdr. Donald George Frederick Wyville MacIntyre, RN.jpg
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    Two destroyers HMS Hesperus (H 57, C/O Lt.Cdr. Donald George Frederick Wyville MacIntyre, RN)

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    and HMS Havant (H 32, C/O Lt.Cdr. Anthony Frank Burnell-Nugent, RN) of the British Royal Navy

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    arrived in Trshavn, the principal harbor and capital of the Faroe Islands.
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  9. #143
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 68

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 6 7 HMS Suffolk Capt. John Walter Durnford, RN.jpg
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    They had carried out escort duties for the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Suffolk (55, C/O Capt. John Walter Durnford, RN) and anti-submarine search operations before they entered Thorshavn harbor. On 13 April the cruiser, accompanied by two armed trawlers, also entered the harbor and landed 250 Marines,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 6 8 Marriage of Thomas Bernard Washbourn Sandall 3.jpg
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    commanded by Lt.Col. Thomas Bernard Washbourn Sandall, RM.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 6 9 Consul Frederick Cecil Mason 3.jpg
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    Also on board was the newly appointed (11 April 1940) British Consul to the Faroe Islands Frederick Cecil Mason.

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    He negotiated the matter with Carl Aage Hilbert (the Danish Prefect of the Islands)

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 6 11 Kristian Djurhuus 1.jpg
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    and Kristian Djurhuus (President of the Lgting, the Faroese Parliament), who duly accepted the British terms. A formal protest was made by the Lgting, albeit expressing the wish for friendly relations. In practice, cordial relations were maintained between the British forces and the Faroese authorities. Lt. Col. Sandall's forces only remained on the Faroes for a few weeks. On 25 May they were relieved by the Lovat Scouts.
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 69

    Back to neutral Iceland: (By Churchillian command naval staff officers always had to write out the geographical name clearly as Iceland, because someone once sent a ship to Ireland by mistake.) Here the British (also) pretended that they wanted to prevent a German invasion and occupation, though they knew that the Germans did not intend to occupy the island. In spring 1939 there had been a German Kriegsmarine simulation to invade a strategic important island, one of the possibilities Iceland, Unternehmen Ikarus, but the plan never was realized, as even though an invasion of Iceland was considered possible, defense and resupply was not. There would have been no chance to ship enough troops or supply to Iceland through a British sea blockade. The true reason to occupy Iceland was that the British were eager to obtain a North Atlantic base for themselves there to strengthen their Northern Patrol.

    So 3 May 1940 the 2nd Royal Marine Battalion in Bisley, Surrey received orders to be ready to move for an unknown destination.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 10 Iceland Colonel Robert Grice Sturges 1.jpg
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    Colonel Robert Grice Sturges was assigned to command the force of 746 Royal Marines. 06 May 1940 Winston Churchill (in charge of the British navy) urged action in Iceland and insisted the British military land in Iceland without any more notes or negotiations. His War Cabinet agreed even though their troops were not prepared or trained properly.

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    On 7 May the Marines embarked for Operation Fork on heavy cruiser HMS Berwick (65, C/O Capt. Irving Montgomery Palmer, RN)

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 16 Iceland HMS Glasgow Capt. Frank Henderson 'Rammer' Pegram, RN.jpg
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    and light cruiser HMS Glasgow (21, C/O Capt. Frank Henderson 'Rammer' Pegram, RN).
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  11. #145
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 70

    Anti-submarine escort and later ferry service was provided

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 20 Iceland HMS Fearless badge 1.jpg
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    by the destroyers HMS Fearless (H 67, C/O Cdr. Kenneth Lanyon Harkness, RN)

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 21 Iceland HMS Fortune badge 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 21 Iceland HMS Fortune 1.jpg
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    and HMS Fortune (H 70, C/O Cdr. Edward Albert Gibbs, RN). Also with the invasion force was a small intelligence team headed by Major Raymond Humphrey Quill and a diplomatic mission

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 23 Charles Howard Smith 2.jpg
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    headed by Charles Howard Smith. Unfortunately for Colonel Sturges, nobody in Major Quills detachment, including Major Quill himself, spoke either German or Icelandic, so it was absolutely impossible for Colonel Sturges to obtain intelligence that was guaranteed to be impartial or completely trustworthy.
    Smith became the first British Minister to Reykjavik. He died in his post in July 1942.
    KH
    please help me with my Polish, Hungarian and Romanian MN-datasheet, click here:
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  12. #146
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 71

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 30 Iceland Invasion 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 26 Only one ship at a time could enter or leave the only entrance to Reykjavik har.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 25 Iceland British Army on the march after the invasion May 1940.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 25 Iceland British forces occupy Iceland1.jpg
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    10 May 1940 heavy cruiser HMS Berwick transferred 400 Marines to the destroyer HMS Fearless, which ferried them into the harbor of Reykjavk. There was no resistance of the 60-70 Icelandic police officers.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 30 Iceland Agnar Hansen 2.jpg
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    In 1940 the Chief of the Capital Police Forces, Agnar Kofoed Hansen, considered to be a Nazi, because he as a part of his own training spent a summer in a SS-instruction camp in Germany,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 30 Iceland Agnar Kofoed Hansen training his officers in the art of war in 1940.jpg
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    had begun hastily to train them against a British invasion. The Icelandic arsenal was limited to a few pistols and rifles and a couple of antique cannons. I did not figure out where Hansen was when the British arrived.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 31 Iceland Police Einar Arnalds 1.jpg
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    Fact is that Einar Arnalds, the acting chief of police, had to deal with them. He tried to protest, but was not permitted to talk to the commander of the destroyer and reported that to Iceland's Prime Minister Jnasson, who instructed him not to interfere with the British soldiers and to try to prevent conflicts between them and Icelanders.
    KH
    please help me with my Polish, Hungarian and Romanian MN-datasheet, click here:
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  13. #147
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 72

    So the British troops moved quickly to disable communication networks, secure strategic locations in Reykjavk, took over cars, homes, and other buildings for their own use and arrested German citizens,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 35 Iceland Consul Dr. Werner Gerlach 1.jpg
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    including the German Consul Dr. Werner Gerlach (repatriated shortly later)

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 37 Iceland Bahia Blanca ex Schnfels (8559 BRT) 1.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 37 Iceland Bahia Blanca ex Schnfels (8559 BRT) 2.jpg
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    and the crew of SS Bahia Blanca ex Schnfels (8559ts), a German freighter which had badly hit an iceberg on 10 January 1940 in the Denmark Strait while enroute from Brazil to Germany.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 38 Iceland HMS Newcastle badge 1.jpg
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ID:	2185978Click image for larger version.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 39 Iceland HMS Newcastle Capt. James Figgins, RN.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 39 Iceland HMS Newcastle Capt. James Figgins, RN 1.jpg
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    On 11 January 1940 the British light cruiser HMS Newcastle (67, C/O Capt. James Figgins, RN) sank the Bahia Blanca with gunfire.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 40 Icelandic steam trawler Hafsteinn  1.jpg
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    Bahia Blancas 62-man crew had been rescued the day before by the Icelandic steam trawler Hafsteinn (RE 156).
    KH
    please help me with my Polish, Hungarian and Romanian MN-datasheet, click here:
    http://www.gunboards.com/form.asp

  14. #148
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 73

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 41 HMS Glasgow Iceland 1.jpg
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    After they had landed the troops HMS Berwick and HMS Glasgow searched the fjords for enemy activity and embarked German nationals for passage to UK for detention.

    In the evening of 10 May, the government of Iceland issued a protest (which was ignored by the British government) charging that the neutrality of Iceland had been "flagrantly violated" and "its independence infringed" and noting that compensation would be expected for all damage done. The British later promised compensation, favourable business agreements, non-interference in Icelandic affairs and the withdrawal of all forces at the end of the war. Resigning themselves to the situation, the Icelandic authorities provided the invasion force with de facto cooperation, though formally maintaining a policy of neutrality.

    While the British Marines secured Reykjavk, a small detachment was sent to nearby Hvalfjrur Fjord, Sandskei, and Kaldaarnes. On 15 May, the harbor town of Hafnarfjrur was occupied. On 17 and 19 May, men were sent by ship to land at Akureyri and Melgeri, respectively, in the Eyjafjrur Fjord on the northern coast to guard against potential German landings. In the following few weeks, anti-aircraft weapons were deployed in Reykjavk to deter potential German air raids.

    The initial British force was later followed by a larger occupation force, consisting of up to 25,000 troops of the British and Canadian armies. After the invasion, it was the Canadians who were left to do the actual occupying. The Canadian part of "Z" Force (British-Canadian garrison force in Iceland) arrived 10 June 1940,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 42 1The Royal Regiment of Canada 1.jpg
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    consisting of the Royal Regiment of Canada,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 42 2 The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa 1.jpg
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    the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburghs Own)

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 42 3  Fusiliers Mont-Royal 1.jpg
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    and the Fusiliers Mont-Royal garrisoning the island until drawn down for the defence of the UK in spring 1941. The Canadian Regiments soon found themselves in much more dangerous places. The very next summer, they stormed the beaches of Dieppe. More than half of them were captured or killed.
    KH
    please help me with my Polish, Hungarian and Romanian MN-datasheet, click here:
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  15. #149
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 74

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 47 Greenland 1.jpg
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    9 April 1941 an agreement that Greenland accepted US protection was signed at Washington

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 48 Secretary of State Cordell Hull 1.jpg
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    between the Secretary of State Cordell Hull, acting on behalf of the Government of the United States of America,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 49 Danish Minister, Henrik de Kauffmann 1.jpg
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    and the Danish Minister, Henrik de Kauffmann, acting on behalf of His Majesty the King of Denmark in his capacity as sovereign of Greenland. The agreement recognized that as a result of the European war there was danger that Greenland might be converted into a point of aggression against nations of the American Continent, and accepted the responsibility on behalf of the United States of assisting Greenland in the maintenance of its present status. It granted to the United States the right to locate and construct airplane landing fields and facilities for the defense of Greenland and for the defense of the American Continent.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 50 USS Niblack (DD-424) 1.jpg
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ID:	2187778Click image for larger version.

Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 50 USS Niblack (DD-424) LCdr. Edward Robison Durgin.jpg
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    11 April 1941 American destroyer USS Niblack (DD-424, C/O Lt.Cdr. Edward Robison Durgin, former Assistant U.S. Naval Attache in the American Embassy in Berlin) dropped three depth charges aimed at the sonar contact of a submarine off Iceland, the first hostile action between American and German forces during the World War II.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 52 Submarine U-52.jpg
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ID:	2187810Click image for larger version.

Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 52 Submarine U-52 Korvettenkapitn Otto Salman.jpg
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ID:	2187802
    10 April the German U-boat U-52 (C/O Korvettenkapitn Otto Salman)

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 52 Submarine U-52 Dutch steam merchant SS Saleier.jpg
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    had sunk the Dutch steam merchant SS Saleier (1920, 6.563ts, Master J. Riedel)
    in this area, but no U-boat reported being under attack on that day in the area, so the contact was probably false.
    KH
    please help me with my Polish, Hungarian and Romanian MN-datasheet, click here:
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  16. #150
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 75

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 53 1939 Declaration of Panama 3.jpg
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ID:	2187834
    18 April 1941 the United States declared that the Pan-American Security Zone, last defined with the 3 October 1939 Declaration of Panama, to be extended to 26 degrees west longitude, 2,300 nautical miles east of New York on the east coast of the United States. It was just 50 nautical miles short of Iceland.

    Although the United States still officially was a non-belligerent, in July 1941 Great Britain passed responsibility for Iceland to the US under a US-Icelandic defence agreement. The arrival of US forces in Iceland coincided with Roosevelts Proclamation of Unlimited National Emergency (in which he mentioned Iceland specifically) on 27 May 1941, and on the basis of a bilateral defense agreement (with a little help or better pressure by the British) between the two countries, concluded by a exchange of messages 1 July 1941. On 7 July, Britain persuaded the Althing to approve an American occupation force and the agreement was ratified by the the Parliament of Iceland on 10 July 1941. President Franklin Roosevelt had ordered the American occupation of Iceland on 16 June 1941 already.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 55 Officers of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade pose for a photograph in Iceland.jpg
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    The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade of 194 officers and 3,714 men

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 56 Iceland General John Marston 1.jpg
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    under the command of Brigadier General John Marston disembarked in Iceland 8 July 1941. British troops also remained in Iceland, for instance the British Polar Bear Royal Marines.
    KH
    please help me with my Polish, Hungarian and Romanian MN-datasheet, click here:
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  17. #151
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    Default Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942, Part 76

    In August 1941 on HMS Prince of Wales Churchill

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 59 Atlantic Conference 3x Roosevelt, 1x Churchill.jpg
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    on his way back from the Atlantic Conference was

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 60 Ensign Franklin Roosevelt, junior.1.jpg
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    accompanied byEnsign Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., who sailed with him to symbolize American solidarity with England, Scotland, and Wales.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 62 HMS Prince of Wales with Churchill in Iceland 16 August 1941.jpg
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    16 August 1941 HMS Prince of Wales stopped

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 63 Reykjavik 1942.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 63 Reykjavik Main Street 1942 1.jpg
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    in newly American-occupied Reykjavik.

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 64 Reykjavik Churchill with Hermann Jonasson, Prime Minister of Iceland..jpg
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    There Churchill was greeted by Hermann Jonasson, Prime Minister of Iceland,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 65 Ensign Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. and Winston Churchill arriving at the Al.jpg
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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 65 Ensign Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. and Winston Churchill arriving at the Al.jpg
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    and went to Iceland's Parliament House

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 65 Winston Churchill giving a speech from the balcony of Iceland's Parliament Hous.jpg
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    to give a speech from the balcony, accompanied by Roosevelt Jr.,

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Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 66 Winston Churchill inspecting the British Polar Bear Royal Marines in Iceland 16.jpg
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ID:	2187930Click image for larger version.

Name:	01.01. 10 l 1 67 The Prime Minister taking the salute at the March Past in Iceland 16 August 194.jpg
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    who also inspected troops with him and stood with him at the parade.


    So Iceland was not neutral any longer, but occupied by the (still neutral) United States, which is one reason why Molotov chose the route via Iceland.
    KH
    please help me with my Polish, Hungarian and Romanian MN-datasheet, click here:
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