#182 Weekend Quiz 4U “the enemy within” - Page 6
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  1. #226
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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 139

    In the 1910 U.S. Census, more than nine million respondents (10 percent of the national population) spoke German as their first language. When war broke out in Europe in 1914, support for Germany was generally tolerated in the United States, though the government’s early position was neutral.

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    But by 1917 it became publicly unacceptable to support the German cause. Anti-German sentiment grew so strong that “sauerkraut” was renamed “liberty cabbage

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    and hamburger became “liberty steak”. Before WW1 the favorite US summertime food was called “frankfurters”. Obviously a very German name, it was deemed unacceptable. In some places they were called “liberty sausages”, but it was another term that stuck, the “hot dog”. The music of Bach, Beethoven and Brahms disappeared from music programs and German books were banned in public festivals. Between 1917 and the 1920s, 14 states banned German language instruction in schools.
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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 140

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Name:	2.4.3. 12 4 a crowd gathers for a German-language book burning at Baraboo High School in Wiscons.jpg 
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    Some even burnt German books, for instance at Baraboo High School in Wisconsin, in Lewistown and Melstone in Montana or at Davenport/Iowa High School, where crowds and students protested and burned more than 500 German-language books, maps and pictures of the Kaiser that had been removed from their library.
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 141

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    Saloons removed pretzels from their bars, and the temperance movement began a campaign against “Continental Sundays,” a German tradition revolving around outdoor concerts, picnics and beer, which bothered many Protestant groups that supported “Blue Laws”, laws designed to restrict or ban some or all Sunday activities for religious or secular reasons.


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    Newspapers started to report outbreaks of “German Measles” as “Liberty Measles”.

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    Even “Dachshunds” were not spared. They were called “Liberty Pups”, but the association with the German enemy and Kaiser Wilhelm II, who had two Dachshunds, could not be cured with a new name. Across the country there were reports of Dachshund owners taking their dogs for a walk being verbally or physically attacked. Dachshunds were stomped to death by angry crowds. After a Dachshund was killed on a street in Chicago his owner, who ran a kennel, shot all of his dogs to avoid confrontations.
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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 142

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    One graphic poster shows Uncle Sam’s hand choking to death a Dachshund

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    or others, wearing a German helmet and an Iron Cross.

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    In other posters, the Dachshunds were chased or killed by bulldogs, the symbol of the United States Marine Corps.

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    A particularly disturbing poster shows a young boy pointing a gun at his pet dog.
    Last edited by kh; 06-09-2020 at 01:06 AM.
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 143

    After the war, the hostility eased, but a year after the war the American Kennel Club changed the name of the breed to badger dog. Four years later it brought back Dachshund.

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    The negative image was strong enough, even in 1939, for the producers of “The Wizard of Oz” to replace the original “Otto the Dachshund”

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    with “Toto the Cairn Terrier”.


    German shepherds became “Alsatian Wolf Dogs”, as not only in the USA it was believed in many countries that the inclusion of the word "German" could harm the breed's popularity due to the anti-German sentiment of the era. During the War, the French club changed its name to the Club du Chien de Berger d’Alsace (Club for the Alsatian Shepherd Dog) - "d'Alsace" ("Alsatian") after the French-German border area of Alsace-Lorraine which at the time was part of Germany. In 1918, the American Kennel Club changed the breed's name to the "Shepherd Dog" and the American breed club did likewise. In 1919, the first German Shepherd Dog breed club in the UK was established as the “Alsatian Wolf-Dog Club”, and the breed was officially recognized and named by The Kennel Club (UK) as the "Alsatian Wolf-Dog". The word "Alsatian" was also adopted in preference to the word "German" by other breed and kennel clubs during and after World War I.
    KH

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    Default

    There was a spate of name changing in Australia, particularly in S.A. where there was/are a large number of immigrants/descendants which arrived in the 1st half of the 19th century. Some still speak Barossa Deutsch.
    A Great Uncle in the UK, served throughout WWI (Aug 14 - Nov 18), always kept a Dachshund until his death, no-one could challenge him on his loyalty or service to the country. Rather, i think, he did it to show how the soldiers engaged at the front, in a sense, were comrades who suffered equally.

  7. #232
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    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by staffy View Post
    There was a spate of name changing in Australia, particularly in S.A. where there was/are a large number of immigrants/descendants which arrived in the 1st half of the 19th century. Some still speak Barossa Deutsch.
    A Great Uncle in the UK, served throughout WWI (Aug 14 - Nov 18), always kept a Dachshund until his death, no-one could challenge him on his loyalty or service to the country. Rather, i think, he did it to show how the soldiers engaged at the front, in a sense, were comrades who suffered equally.
    I like your Great Uncle, staffy!
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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 144

    Numerous newspapers told stories of the German breed to become, more peacefully, renamed “Wiener Dogs”, or being shot or stoned to death. This was not only in the US, but also in the UK, as for instance British novelist Graham Greene wrote in his autobiography (‘A Sort of Life’, published in 1971), who during the war witnessed the public stoning of a dog. There were several more US incidents, mentioned by the NY Times, for instance in a major neighborhood of Columbus, Ohio, which was/is called German Village. A peek at a map indicated that many of the streets had German names in 1917.

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    The central location of this neighborhood was a park of 23.45 acres, which in 1905 had been named "Schiller Park" after the German poet and physician Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller on the 100th anniversary of Schiller’s death.

    After the Board of Education had sold its German text-books for fifty cents a hundred weight with the restriction that they be used only for pulp, a venture that netted some $400, two book-burnings of German language books happened on 19 April 1918 on East Broad Street,

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    where lighted woodpiles were provided and citizens were asked to bring their German books to be burned,

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    and at the foot of the large statue of Schiller in the park.

    The same day there was a drive to collect all Columbus dogs of German breeds, which was a lot of the typical dogs. They were dragged to the park, a ceremony of some sort was held, the dogs were shot and thrown into a previously dug pit. Then on 27 May 1918 the park was re-named “Washington Park” by the City Council. (Actually Schiller was the wrong addressee, because like nearly no other poet of his time he had always fought for ideas of reason, humanity and freedom.The park was re-re-named “Schiller Park” on 7 April 1930.)

    The City Council not only banned the name of Schiller but also changed the name of Germania Park to Mohawk Park and streets formerly called Schiller, Germania, Kaiser and Bismarck became Whittier, Steward, Lear and Lansing respectively. Petitions for name changes were countless and few organizations resisted or protested. The Order of Druids as well as certain Protestant and Catholic Churches, which had been using the German language in rituals for over seventy years, substituted English posthaste. Summing up the frenzy best was the First German Methodist Church which switched its name to First Zion Methodist Church and erected a tablet with the inscription: "We stand for God and Christ, Our Country and Flag, Humanity and Democracy."
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 145

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    Despite the press fueled hate, the Columbus German American community produced one of America's finest heroes of the war, Captain Edward Vernon Rickenbacker, Medal of Honor recipient, with 26 aerial victories with 94th Aero Squadron (known as the Hat in the Ring Squadron) America's most successful fighter ace in WW1,

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    first with Nieuport 28s

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    and later with more rugged Spad 13s from mid-July 1918.


    During World War II, Adolf Hitler and Tōjō Hideki were sufficient symbols of evil and the “German” dogs were left alone.
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 146

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    Beer essentially became unpatriotic. It fits the convenient narrative to blame and exclude German-Americans

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    and accuse and attack German-American brewers of subverting the Allied powers. Before, brewers were accused of breaking up families. Now, they were portrayed as breaking apart the very fabric of American society. They had the power to intoxicate and incapacitate American soldiers.

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    Former 21st Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin John Strange summarized this fear in a February 1918 speech:

    “We have German enemies across the water. We have German enemies in this country, too. And the worst of all our German enemies, the most treacherous, the most menacing, are Pabst, Schlitz, Blatz and Miller. They are the worst Germans who ever afflicted themselves on a long-suffering people”.

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    As the temperance movement had gained in popularity, drinking was presented as thoroughly unpatriotic and unethical. WW1 only brought grist to the mill for the anti-alcohol crusade. Its activists populistically proclaimed sobriety

    “the bomb that will blow kaiserism to kingdom come”.

    Even before Congress approved the eighteenth constitutional amendment in December 1917, which came into force in January 1920, the prohibition had already extended to American soldiers: they were to stand out from their drinking European counterparts. Contrary to the British, Russian, French or German military cultures of the time, the Americans did not regard alcohol as the source of “liquid courage” but as overtly debilitating. According to Secretary of the Navy Daniels the ultimate goal was to give America

    “the soberest, cleanest, and healthiest fighting men the world has ever known”.

    In 1917, the U.S. Army Manual of Military Training instructed servicemen:

    “Do not drink whiskey or beer, especially in the field. It will weaken you and favor heat exhaustion, sunstroke, frostbite, and other serious troubles. Alcohol muddles the mind and clouds thoughts, and so causes a feeling of carelessness and silliness that may ruin some military plan, or give the whole thing away to the enemy and with it the lives of yourself and your comrades.”
    KH

  11. #236
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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 147

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    In December 1917, President Woodrow Wilson signed a proclamation forbidding brewers from brewing beverages with more than 2.75 percent alcohol by volume. (BTW: President Wilson loved Scotch.

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    His 1912 campaign song “Wilson! That’s All!” actually came from a brand of whiskey that was popular early in the 20th century) The Selective Service Act forbade the sale of liquor to men in uniform. On entering the war in April 1917, Congress extended these regulations to the sale of alcoholic beverages beyond military camps wherever American troops were stationed. Dry zones were established around military camps.

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    Total prohibition then was to cover an area of up to five miles around each army post which made the sale of alcohol to men in uniform illegal.

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    Behind the lines, YMCA camps offered “wholesome” entertainment for American troops free from alcohol and other vices. However, the temperance movement and YMCA ultimately failed to prevent American troops from consuming alcohol during the war. In practice, given the ubiquity of alcohol on the Western Front, it was impossible to keep military personnel completely dry.

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    Thus the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, General John Pershing,

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    allowed his men deployed in France light wine and beer, but in sum, overall, the USA neither issued alcohol to its soldiers nor accepted their alcoholic self-medication.
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 148

    3. Alcohol for Women in UK

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    The British government was particularly concerned about the amount of alcohol being consumed by female munition workers. A survey of four pubs in London revealed that in one hour on a Saturday night alcohol was consumed by 1,483 men and 1,946 women. Newspapers claimed that soldiers' wives were

    "drinking away their over-generous allowances".

    The Times reported that

    "we do not all realise the increase in drinking there has been among the mothers of the coming race, though we may yet find it a circumstance darkly menacing to our civilisation".

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    The government also became concerned about the increase in alcohol consumption in certain areas. An enormous munitions factory built to supply ammunition to British forces had been established in the small town of Gretna in Scotland,
    H.M. Factory, Gretna, the United Kingdom's largest cordite factory in World War I with Mr. Kenneth Plummer as the manager. HM Factory, Gretna stretched 12 miles from Mossband near Longtown in the east, to Dornock/Eastriggs in the west. The facility consisted of four large production sites and two purpose-built townships. The facility had its own independent transport network, power source and water supply system.
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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 149

    By 1917 the work-force comprised 11,576 women and 5,066 men, many of them from Ireland, who had moved to the area to provide the workers for the factory.
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    They lived in neighboring villages and spent much of their leisure time in the public-houses of Carlisle. Most of the workers were well-behaved but the drunkenness convictions quadrupled. Complaints were also received about "inappropriate sexual behaviour" in "snug" rooms in public-houses.


    The government attempted to solve the problem by buying up the local breweries and 320 licensed premises. In Carlisle 48 out of 119 public-houses were shut down. The advertising of alcohol in the area was banned. So also was the selling of spirits on Saturdays. Salaried civil servants were brought in as managers of the public-houses with no inducement to push sales and ordered to install eating-rooms and to abolish "snugs". It was also prohibited to serve alcohol to people under the age of eighteen in the town. Opening hours in public houses near munitions factories had already been restricted in August 1914, and the “Defence of the Realm Act 1914” and subsequent modifications banned drinking on trains and “treating”, the buying of drinks for others, The "No Treating Order" laid down that any drink ordered was to be paid for by the person supplied. The maximum penalty for defying the Government order was six months' imprisonment. The Spectator gave its support to the legislation. It argued that it was the custom of the working-classes to buy drinks for

    "chance-met acquaintances, each of whom then had to stand a drink to everyone else"

    and believed that this measure would

    "free hundreds of thousands of men from an expensive and senseless social tyranny".

    It was reported in The Morning Post on 14 March 1916:

    "At Southampton yesterday Robert Andrew Smith was fined for treating his wife to a glass of wine in a local public-house. He said his wife gave him sixpence to pay for her drink. Mrs Smith was also fined £1 for consuming and Dorothy Brown, the barmaid, £5 for selling the intoxicant, contrary to the regulations of the Liquor Control Board."

    Public House opening times in cities and industrial areas were also reduced to 12.00 noon to 2.30 pm and 6.30 to 9.30 pm. Before the law was changed, public houses could open from 5 am in the morning to 12.30 pm at night. However, in most rural areas, people could continue to buy alcoholic drinks throughout the day.
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 150

    4. Conclusion

    Prohibition or at least the temperance movement did not end with WW1.

    4.1. Central Powers

    In both Germany and Austria-Hungary, unlike in some other belligerent states, there was no common concern over intemperance and alcohol did not become the subject of moral concern or state control.

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    In Germany the temperance movement grew in the Weimarer Republik, though, and still agitated against alcohol. A marked decline in alcohol production (in the case of beer in Germany down
    to 30 percent of pre-war levels) and restrictions on its sale did not stem from any prohibitionist policies but were spawned by the concerns over the unnecessary diversion of scare grain supplies. It was the scarcity of the essential brewing ingredients, such as sugar, grain and potatoes that caused beverage shortages in the two main Central Power countries.

    Towards the end of the First World War, in Austria the authorities feared rioting and alcohol-related crimes, which became common in the interwar period. At the end of the war, the introduction of a ban on alcohol was implemented, the implementation of which was the responsibility of the state governments, district authorities or municipalities. This was laid down in the "Law of 18 December 1918 on the Election Regulations for the Constituent National Assembly" for German Austria and the First Republic. The law not only stipulated that the "serving of alcoholic drinks [...] was prohibited on election day and the day before", but also excluded those from the voting process affected by "intoxication" if they "were sentenced to arrest more than twice because of intoxication." The period for exclusion from the right to vote was three years after the end of the last sentence to be served.

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    On 30 September 1925, as a result of the closure of the Steyr weapons factory, an alcohol ban was issued in Steyr and the neighboring municipalities, "because given the terrible excitement of the workers, considerations may need to be taken into account, especially if the excitement was exacerbated by alcohol consumption ". The campaign generated a number of remarkable protest and signature campaigns.

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    One of the Austrian pioneers of abstinence was the priest and reformist Johannes Ude (nicknamed „Savonarola of Graz“) in the 1920s - 1930s. He gave fiery, damning speeches against the "enormously damaging alcohol abuse": "Austria's draining" is impossible "as long as Europe is swimming in alcohol". Ude tried to prove that beer and wine consumption almost doubled between 1920 and 1926, and the one of brandy even increased five-fold.

    In the National Council he called for a referendum to introduce a bill to combat excessive alcohol consumption. The referendum demanded:
    1. a ban on alcohol from Saturday noon to Monday morning;
    2. raise of the age of child protection from 16 to 18 years;
    3. gradual expiry of the brandy concessions;
    4. unenforceability of drinking debts;
    5. a right of municipal determination, to which it should be left to take further restrictive measures in their area.

    One of Ude's female counterparts was the publisher Emilie Kassowitz, who was heavily involved in the anti-alcohol movement, referring among other things to women in North America as pioneers, but also to pioneers in Germany, especially in Bremen, and Switzerland. Kassowitz, whose parents already had been involved in the anti-alcohol movement, was a member of the anti-alcohol commission in the (Federation of Austrian Women's Associations).

    After the end of the First World War in Austria Alcohol per se could only be obtained at very high prices. As a result, the number of alcoholics decreased, more or less as a result of the price. However, people began to switch to morphine and / or cocaine, especially in the big cities, since these drugs were cheaper than alcohol in the immediate post-war years. In the mid-1920s, the price of alcoholic drinks stabilized, only to collapse again in 1929.
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 151

    4.2. Russia and Soviet Union

    Russia completely stopped the retail sale of vodka and prohibition continued through the turmoil of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War, into the period of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union until 1925.

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    Also in Russia the temperance movement still continued agitating, though.



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    Photo: Lifting of prohibition


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    Photo: Peasants making their own moonshine, mid-1950s
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 152

    4.3. USA

    After the United States had entered World War I in 1917 and President Woodrow Wilson had instituted the temporary wartime prohibition in order to save grain for producing food,

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    Congress submitted the 18th Amendment, which banned the manufacture, transportation and sale of intoxicating liquors, for state ratification. Though Congress had stipulated a seven-year time limit for the process, the amendment received the support of the necessary three-quarters of U.S. states in just 11 months. Ratified on 16 January 1919, the 18th Amendment went into effect a year later, by which time no fewer than 33 states had already enacted their own prohibition legislation. In October 1919, Congress put forth the National Prohibition Act, which provided guidelines for the federal enforcement of Prohibition.

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    Championed by Representative Andrew John Volstead of Minnesota, the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, the legislation was more commonly known as the Volstead Act. The high price of bootleg liquor meant that the nation’s working class and poor were far more restricted during Prohibition than middle or upper class Americans.

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    Costs for law enforcement, jails and prisons spiraled upward and support for Prohibition was waning by the end of the 1920s.

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    Photo: At the time, the investigators were relying on the latest technical achievements: civil servants near Los Angeles are scanning hay bales with a portable X-ray machine

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    Journalist Henry Louis Mencken wrote in 1925 that

    “There is not less drunkenness in the Republic but more. Not less crime, but more. There is not less insanity, but more. The cost of government is not smaller, but vastly greater. Respect for law has not increased, but diminished.”
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 153

    Alcohol was smuggled into the country.

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    Photo: Alcohol was also carried on the body in specially designed tanks during prohibition

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    Photo: There were no limits to the smuggling imagination, as you can see from this "book"

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    Photo: In 1927, thousands of whiskey bottles were discovered on this British trawler anchored in front of the Statue of Liberty.

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    Photo: California alcohol detectors found 225 tequila bottles in this gas tank

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    Photo: Consumers made an effort not to take the sought-after material out of sight for outsiders. Here a woman shows where she carries her schnapps.

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    Photo: In Chicago, bottles were hidden in pig carcasses. The prohibited goods should be distributed through the slaughterhouses in the city

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    Photo: Smuggling car, in the roof of which almost 400 liters of schnapps were hidden in a tank

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    Photo: Smugglers truck, disguised as wood truck

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    Photo
    : The cartels refined their methods to avoid the coast guard: at a safe distance from land, they filled the alcohol on the ships in swimming tanks. These then drifted to the coast - and were collected there by accomplices
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 154

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    With the country mired in the Great Depression by 1932, creating jobs and revenue by legalizing the liquor industry had an undeniable appeal.

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    Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for president that year on a platform calling for Prohibition’s repeal. FDR’s victory meant the end for Prohibition, and in February 1933 Congress adopted a resolution proposing a 21st Amendment to the Constitution that would repeal the 18th. The amendment was submitted to the states, and in December 1933 Utah provided the 36th and final necessary vote for ratification. Though a few states continued to prohibit alcohol after Prohibition’s end, all had abandoned the ban by 1966.
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Part 155

    4.4. UK

    The British government increased duty on alcohol progressively, while the strength of beer was reduced. In 1918 a bottle of whisky cost £1, five times what it had cost before the outbreak of war. This helped to reduce alcoholic consumption. Whereas Britain consumed 89 million gallons in 1914, this had fallen to 37 million in 1918. Convictions for drunkenness also fell dramatically during the war. In London in 1914, 67,103 people were found guilty of being drunk. In 1917 this had fallen to 16,567.

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    The Central Control Board, established 19 May 1915 and presided by the financier, diplomat, former conservative MP and unsuccessful liberal candidate Lord Edgar Vincent D´Abernon, had effectively nationalized the brewery and pub industry in areas where the efficiency of munitions factories might have been damaged by drunkenness among workers. Across the country, taxes were increased, strengths reduced, licenses restricted and ‘responsible pub management’ (including facilities for women) were encouraged. Beer consumption per head by 1918 was half pre-war levels, and despite the return of troops continued to decline for the next 15 years, prompting a Royal Commission in 1931 to declare that “drunkenness has gone out of fashion”.
    KH

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    Default “The Enemy Within”, Final Part 156

    That´s it: Cheers, Santé, Salute, За Здоровье and Prosit.
    KH

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    Thanks for the excursion and for touching on so many interesting events in our shared history.

  22. #247
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    Quote Originally Posted by staffy View Post
    Thanks for the excursion and for touching on so many interesting events in our shared history.
    Thank you very much, staffy.

    It seems, though, that too many "sober" gunboards members are around, as the interest in this quiz/story was only half of that in other quizzes. I have another one, with some more "action", and could start it tomorrow if there would be some interest.
    KH

  23. #248

    Default

    Post #237 On google maps I looked for satellite pictures of the ammunition plant in Gretna (SE of it actually) and the storage facility is still there, but without railroad tracks. I think the actual plant has been replaced by another storage facility. I only see a few houses so I assume most have been removed.
    Turning relics into near-relics since 2005.

  24. #249
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    Default

    I've really enjoyed this one and finally got to make (wrong) guesses. Lots of great info and I have sent links to some days posts to non-gunboards members who also enjoyed the history lesson.

    I'm looking forward to the next quiz. I really look forward to them first thing every morning when I start on the computer.

    Thanks, kh for your hard work.

  25. #250
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    Quote Originally Posted by David Murvihill View Post
    Post #237 On google maps I looked for satellite pictures of the ammunition plant in Gretna (SE of it actually) and the storage facility is still there, but without railroad tracks. I think the actual plant has been replaced by another storage facility. I only see a few houses so I assume most have been removed.
    Great, David !
    KH

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    Quote Originally Posted by nwellons View Post
    I've really enjoyed this one and finally got to make (wrong) guesses. Lots of great info and I have sent links to some days posts to non-gunboards members who also enjoyed the history lesson.

    I'm looking forward to the next quiz. I really look forward to them first thing every morning when I start on the computer.

    Thanks, kh for your hard work.
    Thank you so much, nwellons. One day, when again I will have a stop at Atlanta airport, I will invite you for a drink! I mean this very serious!
    KH

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    Another great quiz KH thanks! Looking forward to another one Denny

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    Quote Originally Posted by Denny View Post
    Another great quiz KH thanks! Looking forward to another one Denny

    Many. many thanks also, Denny!!!
    KH

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    Dear KH, I would hate for you to feel that the measure of your contributions lies in their popularity, rather than the research and study involved. Scholarship will never command the readership of popular histories.

  30. #255
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    Quote Originally Posted by staffy View Post
    Dear KH, I would hate for you to feel that the measure of your contributions lies in their popularity, rather than the research and study involved. Scholarship will never command the readership of popular histories.
    You are right, staffy, I mainly try to avoid to be boring (and of course research and study and puzzling everything together is the measure, but it is also nice if ones work is appreciated).
    KH

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    Another excellent topic KH that I read with great interest. On the steep decline of the amount of beer and spirits before and after the Great War; some of the difference could be due to the absence of the men who never returned.

  32. #257
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    Quote Originally Posted by car99 View Post
    Another excellent topic KH that I read with great interest. On the steep decline of the amount of beer and spirits before and after the Great War; some of the difference could be due to the absence of the men who never returned.
    Many thanks, car99, and the absence of so many men is a very good point!!
    KH

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